According to Dhami and Sheikh, gender roles in Muslim countries focus on the importance of family unity, which is seen as the foundation of a balanced and healthy society. [65] Islamic views on gender roles and the family have traditionally been conservative. Of course, not everyone fits into these roles – or wants to. Many people face stereotypical behaviors associated with a different gender, regardless of how they identify. (Many men cook and love flowers; many women play sports and enjoy working on cars.) And some people don`t identify as strictly male or female. Their gender identification can be ambiguous and they can reject gender roles altogether. The elections of a growing number of women in power serve as a basis for many scholars to argue that voters are not aligned with a candidate`s gender. However, it has been shown that women politicians are perceived only as superior in dealing with women`s rights and poverty, while politicians are perceived as better at dealing with crime and foreign policy. [174] This view coincides with the most common gender stereotypes. Most children learn to categorize by gender at the age of three. [23] From birth, during gender socialization, children learn about gender stereotypes and the roles of their parents and environment. Traditionally, boys learn to manipulate their physical and social environment through physical force or dexterity, while girls learn to present themselves as objects to be seen. [24] Social constructivists argue that differences between male and female behaviours are better due to the activities of sex-separated children than to an essential, natural, physiological or genetic predisposition.

[25] A study of gender stereotypes by Jacobs (1991) found that parents` stereotypes interact with their child`s gender to directly influence parents` beliefs about the child`s abilities. In turn, parents` beliefs about their child directly affect their child`s self-perception, and parents` stereotypes and the child`s self-perception affect the child`s performance. [133] Through such tests, it is known that American Southerners show less egalitarian gender views than their Northern counterparts, which shows that gender views are inevitably influenced by an individual`s culture. It may also differ among compatriots whose „cultures“ are a few hundred miles apart. [105] Although the number of women candidates for office has increased in recent decades, they still make up only 20 percent of U.S. senators, 19.4 percent of U.S. senators. Members of Congress and 24% of national executives. [172] Moreover, many of these political campaigns appear to focus on the candidate`s aggressiveness, which is often still perceived as a masculine trait. [173] As a result, female candidates compete on the basis of gender stereotypes, as this predicts a higher probability of success than being a stereotypical woman. West and Zimmerman have developed an interactionist perspective on gender that goes beyond its construction as „roles.“ For them, gender is „the product of a kind of social activity. men and women whose competence as members of society is hostage to their production.“ [48] They argue that the use of the term „role“ to describe gender expectations hides gender production through daily activities.

In addition, roles are situated identities such as „nurse“ and „student“ that are developed according to the situation, while gender is a main identity with no specific place or organizational context. For them, „the conceptualization of gender as a role makes it difficult to assess its influence on other roles and diminishes its explanatory utility in discussions of power and inequality.“ [48] West and Zimmerman view gender as an individual production that reflects and constructs interactional and institutional expectations of gender. The censor of state cinema interprets his role mainly as one of the main parents. Many leadership roles in the organized Church were limited to men. In the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, only men are allowed to serve as priests or deacons and to hold leadership positions such as pope, patriarch and bishop. Women can serve as abbesses. Most traditional Protestant denominations are beginning to ease their long-standing restrictions on the ordination of women as ministers, although some large groups are tightening their restrictions in response. The Charismatic and Pentecostal Churches have embraced the ordination of women since their founding. Attitudes have also changed in the past. For example, women in Europe in the Middle Ages were often associated with roles related to medicine and healing. [57] With the rise of witch hunts across Europe and the institutionalization of medicine, these roles have been associated exclusively with men.

[57] In recent decades, these roles have become largely gender-neutral in Western society. [58] These modified „rules“ for lesbian, gay and bisexual people can also be repressive. Morgan investigates the fate of gay asylum seekers because of homophobic persecution who have been turned away by U.S. Customs because they are „not gay enough“; not sufficiently in line with standard (Western) ideas about the gender roles of gays and lesbians. [231] After about 1980, divorce rates stabilized in the United States. [85] Researchers in the field of sociology explain that this stabilization was due to several factors, including, but not limited to, the change in gender roles. Attitudes towards changing gender roles can be divided into two perspectives: traditional and egalitarian. .

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